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The Republic of Latvia


With amendments promulgated before 30 April 2002

The people of Latvia, in freely elected Constitutional Assembly, have adopted the following State Constitution:

Chapter I

General Provisions

1. Latvia is an independent democratic republic.

2. The sovereign power of the State of Latvia is vested in the people of Latvia.

3. The territory of the State of Latvia, within the borders established by international agreements, consists of Vidzeme, Latgale, Kurzeme and Zemgale.

4. The Latvian language is the official language in the Republic of Latvia. The national flag of Latvia shall be red with a band of white.

[Art.4 as amended of 15 October, 1998]

Chapter II


5. The Saeima shall be composed of one hundred representatives of the people.

6. The Saeima shall be elected in general, equal, direct and secret elections, based on proportional representation.

7. In the division of Latvia into separate electoral districts, provision for the number of representatives to the Saeima to be elected from each district shall be proportional to the number of electors in each district.

8. All citizens of Latvia who enjoy full rights of citizenship and, who on election day have attained eighteen years of age shall be entitled to vote.

[Art.8 as amended of 27 January, 1994]

9. Any citizen of Latvia, who enjoys full rights of citizenship and, who is more than twenty-one years of age on the first day of elections may be elected to the Saeima.


18. The Saeima itself shall review the qualifications of its members.
A person elected to the Saeima shall acquire the mandate of a Member of the Saeima if such person gives the following solemn promise:
"I, upon assuming the duties of a Member of the Saeima, before the people of Latvia, do swear (solemnly promise) to be loyal to Latvia, to strengthen its sovereignty and the Latvian language as the only official language, to defend Latvia as an independent and democratic State, and to fulfil my duties honestly and conscientiously. I undertake to observe the Constitution and laws of Latvia."

[Art.18 as amended of 30 April, 2002, shall come into force on 5 November 2002]


21. The Saeima shall establish rules of order to provide for its internal operations and order. The working language of the Saeima is the Latvian language.

[Art.18 as amended of 30 April, 2002]


Chapter VIII

Fundamental Human Rights

[Chapter VIII adopted by amendment of 15 October, 1998]

89. The State shall recognise and protect fundamental human rights in accordance with this Constitution, laws and international agreements binding upon Latvia.

90. Everyone has the right to know about their rights.

91. All human beings in Latvia shall be equal before the law and the courts. Human rights shall be realised without discrimination of any kind.


98. Everyone has the right to freely depart from Latvia. Everyone having a Latvian passport shall be protected by the State when abroad and has the right to freely return to Latvia. A citizen of Latvia may not be extradited to a foreign country.

99. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. The church shall be separate from the State.

100. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression which includes the right to freely receive, keep and distribute information and to express their views. Censorship is prohibited.

101. Every citizen of Latvia has the right, as provided for by law, to participate in the activities of the State and of local government, and to hold a position in the civil service. Local governments shall be elected by Latvian citizens who enjoy full rights of citizenship. The working language of local governments is the Latvian language.

[Art.18 as amended of 30 April, 2002]

102. Everyone has the right to form and join associations, political parties and other public organisations.

103. The State shall protect the freedom of previously announced peaceful meetings, street processions, and pickets.

104. Everyone has the right to address submissions to State or local government institutions and to receive a materially responsive reply. Everyone has the right to receive a reply in the Latvian language.

[Art.18 as amended of 30 April, 2002]


112. Everyone has the right to education. The State shall ensure that everyone may acquire primary and secondary education without charge. Primary education shall be compulsory.


114. Persons belonging to ethnic minorities have the right to preserve and develop their language and their ethnic and cultural identity.

115. The State shall protect the right of everyone to live in a benevolent environment by providing information about environmental conditions and by promoting the preservation and improvement of the environment.

116. The rights of persons set out in Articles ninety-six, ninety-seven, ninety-eight, one hundred, one hundred and two, one hundred and three, one hundred and six, and one hundred and eight of the Constitution may be subject to restrictions in circumstances provided for by law in order to protect the rights of other people, the democratic structure of the State, and public safety, welfare and morals. On the basis of the conditions set forth in this Article, restrictions may also be imposed on the expression of religious beliefs.

Source: Website of the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia