CHARTER OF PARIS
A NEW EUROPE
Meeting of the Heads of State or Government of the participating
States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe
(CSCE): Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech and Slovak
Federal Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy
See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy- European Community,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, United
States of America and Yugoslavia
Paris, 19 - 21 November 1990
A new era of Democracy, Peace and Unity
We, the Heads of State or Government of the States participating in
the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, have assembled
in Paris at a time of profound change and historic expectations. The
era of confrontation and division of Europe has ended. We declare
that henceforth our, relations will be founded on respect and
Europe is liberating itself from the legacy of the past. The
courage of men and women, the strength of the will of the peoples and
the power of the ideas of the Helsinki Final Act have opened a new
era of democracy, peace and unity in Europe.
Ours is a time for fulfilling the hopes and expectations our peoples
have cherished for decades : steadfast commitment to democracy based
on human rights and fundamental freedoms; prosperity through economic
liberty and social justice; and equal security for all our countries.
The Ten Principles of the Final Act will guide us towards this
ambitious future, just as they have lighted our way towards better
relations for the past fifteen years. Full implementation of all
CSCE commitments must form the basis for the initiatives we are now
taking to enable our nations to live in accordance with their
Human Rights, Democracy and Rule of Law
We undertake to build, consolidate and strengthen democracy as the
only system of government of our nations. In this endeavour, we will
abide by the following:
Human rights and fundamental freedoms are the birthright of all
human beings, are inalienable and are guaranteed by law. Their
protection and promotion is the first responsibility of government.
Respect for them is an essential safeguard against an over-mighty
State. Their observance and full exercise are the foundation of
freedom, justice and peace.
Democratic government is based on the will of the people, expressed
regularly through free and fair elections. Democracy has as its
foundation respect for the human person and the rule of law.
Democracy is the best safeguard of freedom of expression, tolerance
of all groups of society, and equality of opportunity for each
Democracy, with its representative and pluralist character, entails
accountability to the electorate, the obligation of public
authorities to comply with the law and justice administered
impartially. No one will be above the law.
We affirm that, without discrimination,
every individual has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and
religion or belief, freedom of expression, freedom of association and
peaceful assembly, freedom of movement;
no one will be:
everyone also has the right:
subject to arbitrary arrest or detention,
subject to torture or other cruel, inhuman
or degrading treatment or punishment;
We affirm that the ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious
identity of national minorities will be protected and that
persons belonging to national minorities have the right
freely to express, preserve and develop that identity without
any discrimination and in full equality before the law.
to know and act upon his rights,
to participate in free and fair elections,
to fair and public trial if charged with an offence,
to own property alone or in association and to exercise individual
to enjoy his economic, social and cultural rights.
We will ensure that everyone will enjoy recourse to effective
remedies, national or international, against any violation of
Full respect for these precepts is the bedrock on which we will seek
to construct the new Europe.
Our States will co-operate and support each other with the aim of
making democratic gains irreversible.
Economic Liberty and Responsibility
Economic liberty, social justice and environmental responsibility
are indispensable for prosperity.
The free will of the individual, exercised in democracy and
protected by the rule of law, forms the necessary basis for
successful economic and social development. We will promote
economic activity which respects and upholds human dignity.
Freedom and political pluralism are necessary elements in our common
objective of developing market economies towards sustainable
economic growth, prosperity, social justice, expanding
employment and efficient use of economic resources. The
success of the transition to market economy by countries
making efforts to this effect is important and in the
interest of us all. It will enable us to share a higher
level of prosperity which is our common objective. We will
co-operate to this end.
Preservation of the environment is a shared responsibility of all
our nations. While supporting national and regional efforts
in this field, we must also look to the pressing need for
joint action on a wider scale.
Friendly Relations among Participating States
Now that a new era is dawning in Europe, we are determined to expand
and strengthen friendly relations and co-operation among the
States of Europe, the United States of America and Canada,
and to promote friendship among our peoples.
To uphold and promote democracy, peace and unity in Europe, we
solemnly pledge our full commitment to the Ten Principles of
the Helsinki Final Act. We affirm the continuing validity of
the Ten Principles and our determination to put them into
practice. All the Principles apply equally and unreservedly,
each of them being interpreted taking into account the
others. They form the basis for our relations.
In accordance with our obligations under the Charter of the United
Nations and commitments under the Helsinki Final Act, we
renew our pledge to refrain from the threat or use of force
against the territorial integrity or political independence
of any State, or from acting in any other manner inconsistent
with the principles or purposes of those documents. We
recall that non-compliance with obligations under the Charter
of the United Nations constitutes a violation of
We reaffirm our commitment to settle disputes by peaceful means. We
decide to develop mechanisms for the prevention and
resolution of conflicts among the participating States.
With the ending of the division of Europe, we will strive for a new
quality in our security relations while fully respecting each
other's freedom of choice in that respect. Security is
indivisible and the security of every participating State is
inseparably linked to that of all the others. We therefore
pledge to co-operate in strengthening confidence and security
among us and in promoting arms control and disarmament.
We welcome the Joint Declaration of Twenty-Two States on the
improvement of their relations.
Our relations will rest on our common adherence to democratic values
and to human rights and fundamental freedoms. We are
convinced that in order to strengthen peace and security
among our States, the advancement of democracy, and respect
for and effective exercise of human rights, are
indispensable. We reaffirm the equal rights of peoples and
their right to self-determination in conformity with the
Charter of the United Nations and with the relevant norms of
international law, including those relating to territorial
integrity of States.
We are determined to enhance political consultation and to widen
co-operation to solve economic, social, environmental,
cultural and humanitarian problems. This common resolve and
our growing interdependence will help to overcome the
mistrust of decades, to increase stability and to build a
We want Europe to be a source of peace, open to dialogue and to
co-operation with other countries, welcoming exchanges and
involved in the search for common responses to the challenges
of the future.
Friendly relations among us will benefit from the consolidation of
democracy and improved security.
We welcome the signature of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces
in Europe by twenty-two participating States, which will lead
to lower levels of armed forces. We endorse the adoption of
a substantial new set of Confidence- and Security-building
Measures which will lead to increased transparency and
confidence among all participating States. These are
important steps towards enhanced stability and security in
The unprecedented reduction in armed forces resulting from the
Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, together with
new approaches to security and co-operation within the CSCE
process, will lead to a new perception of security in Europe
and a new dimension in our relations. In this context we
fully recognize the freedom of States to choose their own
Europe whole and free is calling for a new beginning. We invite our
peoples to join in this great endeavour.
We note with great satisfaction the Treaty on the Final Settlement
with respect to Germany signed in Moscow on 12 September 1990
and sincerely welcome the fact that the German people have
united to become one State in accordance with the principles
of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and
Co-operation in Europe and in full accord with their
neighbours. The establishment of the national unity of
Germany is an important contribution to a just and lasting
order of peace for a united, democratic Europe aware of its
responsibility for stability, peace and co-operation.
The participation of both North American and European States is a
fundamental characteristic of the CSCE; it underlies its past
achievements and is essential to the future of the CSCE
process. An abiding adherence to shared values and our
common heritage are the ties which bind us together. With
all the rich diversity of our nations, we are united in our
commitment to expand our co-operation in all fields. The
challenges confronting us can only be met by common action,
co-operation and solidarity.
The CSCE and the World
The destiny of our nations is linked to that of all other nations.
We support fully the United Nations and the enhancement of
its role in promoting international peace, security and
justice. We reaffirm our commitment to the principles and
purposes of the United Nations as enshrined in the Charter
and condemn all violations of these principles. We recognize
with satisfaction the growing role of the United Nations in
world affairs and its increasing effectiveness, fostered by
the improvement in relations among our States.
Aware of the dire needs of a great part of the world, we commit
ourselves to solidarity with all other countries. Therefore,
we issue a call from Paris today to all the nations of the
world. We stand ready to join with any and all States in
common efforts to protect and advance the community of
fundamental human values.
Guidelines for the future
Proceeding from our firm commitment to the full implementation of
all CSCE principles and provisions, we now resolve to give a
new impetus to a balanced and comprehensive development of
our co-operation in order to address the needs and
aspirations of out peoples.
We declare our respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms to
be irrevocable. We will fully implement and build upon the
provisions relating to the human dimension of the CSCE.
Proceeding from the Document of the Copenhagen Meeting of the
Conference on the Human Dimension, we will cooperate to
strengthen democratic institutions and to promote the
application of the rule of law. To that end, we decide to
convene a seminar of experts in Oslo from 4 to 15 November
Determined to foster the rich contribution of national minorities to
the life of our societies, we undertake further to improve
their situation. We reaffirm our deep conviction that
friendly relations among our peoples, as well as peace,
justice, stability and democracy, require that the ethnic,
cultural, linguistic and religious identity of national
minorities be protected and conditions for the promotion of
that identity be created. We declare that questions related
to national minorities can only be satisfactorily resolved in
a democratic political framework. We further acknowledge
that the rights of persons belonging to national minorities
must be fully respected as part of universal human rights.
Being aware of the urgent need for increased cooperation on,
as well as better protection of, national minorities, we
decide to convene a meeting of experts on national minorities
to be held in Geneva from 1 to 19 July 1991.
We express our determination to combat all forms of racial and
ethnic hatred, antisemitism, xenophobia and discrimination
against anyone as well as persecution on religious and
In accordance with our CSCE commitments, we stress that free
movement and contacts among our citizens as well as the free
flow of information and ideas are crucial for the maintenance
and development of free societies and flourishing cultures.
We welcome increased tourism and visits among our countries.
The human dimension mechanism has proved its usefulness, and we are
consequently determined to expand it to include new
procedures involving, inter alia, the services of experts or
a roster of eminent persons experienced in human rights
issues which could be raised under the mechanism. We shall
provide, in the context of the mechanism, for individuals to
be involved in the protection of their rights. Therefore, we
undertake to develop further our commitments in this respect,
in particular at the Moscow Meeting of the Conference on the
Human Dimension, without prejudice to obligations under
existing international instruments to which our States may be
We recognize the important contribution of the Council of Europe to
the promotion of human rights and the principles of democracy
and the rule of law as well as to the development of cultural
co-operation. We welcome moves by several participating
States to join the Council of Europe and adhere to its
European Convention on Human Rights. We welcome as well the
readiness of the Council of Europe to make its experience
available to the CSCE.
The changing political and military environment in Europe opens new
possibilities for common efforts in the field of military
security. We will build on the important achievements
attained in the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe
and in the Negotiations on Confidence- and Security-building
Measures. We undertake to continue the CSBM negotiations
under the same mandate, and to seek to conclude them no later
than the Follow-up Meeting of the CSCE to be held in Helsinki
in 1992. We also welcome the decision of the participating
States concerned to continue the CFE negotiation under the
same mandate and to seek to conclude it no later than the
Helsinki Follow-up Meeting. Following a period for national
preparations, we look forward to a more structured
co-operation among all participating States on security
matters, and to discussions and consultations among the
thirty-four participating States aimed at establishing by
1992, from the conclusion of the Helsinki Follow-up Meeting,
new negotiations on disarmament and confidence and security
building open to all participating States.
We call for the earliest possible conclusion of the Convention on an
effectively verifiable, global and comprehensive ban on
chemical weapons, and we intend to be original signatories to
We reaffirm the importance of the Open Skies initiative and call for
the successful conclusion of the negotiations as soon as
Although the threat of conflict in Europe has diminished, other
dangers threaten the stability of our societies. We are determined
to co-operate in defending democratic institutions against
activities which violate the independence, sovereign equality or
territorial integrity of the participating States. These
include illegal activities involving outside pressure,
coercion and subversion.
We unreservedly condemn, as criminal, all acts, methods and
practices of terrorism and express our determination to work
for its eradication both bilaterally and through multilateral
co-operation. We will also join together in combating
illicit trafficking in drugs.
Being aware that an essential complement to the duty of States to
refrain from the threat or use of force is the peaceful
settlement of disputes, both being essential factors for the
maintenance and consolidation of international peace and
security, we will not only seek effective ways of preventing,
through political means, conflicts which may yet emerge, but
also define, in conformity with international law,
appropriate mechanisms for the peaceful resolution of any
disputes which may arise. Accordingly, we undertake to seek
new forms of co-operation in this area, in particular a range
of methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes, including
mandatory third-party involvement. We stress that full use
should be made in this context of the opportunity of the
Meeting on the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes which will be
convened in Valletta at the beginning of 1991. The Council
of Ministers for Foreign Affairs will take into account the
Report of the Valletta Meeting.
We stress that economic co-operation based on market economy
constitutes an essential element of our relations and will be
instrumental in the construction of a prosperous and united
Europe. Democratic institutions and economic liberty foster
economic and social progress, as recognized in the Document
of the Bonn Conference on Economic Co-operation, the results
of which we strongly support.
We underline that co-operation in the economic field, science and
technology is now an important pillar of the CSCE. The
participating States should periodically review progress and
give new impulses in these fields.
We are convinced that our overall economic co-operation should be
expanded, free enterprise encouraged and trade increased and
diversified according to GATT rules. We will promote social
justice and progress and further the welfare of our peoples.
We recognize in this context the importance of effective
policies to address the problem of unemployment.
We reaffirm the need to continue to support democratic countries in
transition towards the establishment of market economy and
the creation of the basis for self-sustained economic and
social growth, as already undertaken by the Group of
twenty-four countries. We further underline the necessity of
their increased integration, involving the acceptance of
disciplines as well as benefits, into the international
economic and financial system.
We consider that increased emphasis on economic co-operation within
the CSCE process should take into account the interests of
developing participating States.
We recall the link between respect for and promotion of human rights
and fundamental freedoms and scientific progress.
Co-operation in the field of science and technology will play
an essential role in economic and social development.
Therefore, it must evolve towards a greater sharing of
appropriate scientific and technological information and
knowledge with a view to overcoming the technological gap
which exists among the participating States. We further
encourage the participating States to work together in order
to develop human potential and the spirit of free enterprise.
We are determined to give the necessary impetus to co-operation
among our States in the fields of energy, transport and
tourism for economic and social development. We welcome, in
particular, practical steps to create optimal conditions for
the economic and rational development of energy resources,
with due regard for environmental considerations.
We recognize the important role of the European Community in the
political and economic development of Europe. International
economic organizations such as the United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe (ECE), the Bretton Woods Institutions,
the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(ECD), the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) also have a
significant task in promoting economic co-operation, which
will be further enhanced by the establishment of the European
Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). In order to
pursue our objectives, we stress the necessity for effective
co-ordination of the activities of these organizations and
emphasize the need to find methods for all our States to take
part in these activities.
We recognize the urgent need to tackle the problems of the
environment and the importance of individual and co-operative
efforts in this area. We pledge to intensify our endeavours
to protect and improve our environment in order to restore
and maintain a sound ecological balance in air, water and
soil. Therefore, we are determined to make full use of the
CSCE as a framework for the formulation of common
environmental commitments and objectives, and thus to pursue
the work reflected in the Report of the Sofia Meeting on the
Protection of the Environment.
We emphasize the significant role of a well-informed society in
enabling the public and individuals to take initiatives to
improve the environment. To this end, we commit ourselves to
promoting public awareness and education on the environment
as well as the public reporting of the environmental impact
of policies, projects and programmes.
We attach priority to the introduction of clean and low-waste
technology, being aware of the need to support countries
which do not yet have their own means for appropriate
We underline that environmental policies should be supported by
appropriate legislative measures and administrative
structures to ensure their effective implementation.
We stress the need for new measures providing for the systematic
evaluation of compliance with the existing commitments and,
moreover, for the development of more ambitious commitments
with regard to notification and exchange of information
about the state of the environment and potential
environmental hazards. We also welcome the creation of the
European Environment Agency (EEA).
We welcome the operational activities, problem-oriented studies and
policy reviews in various existing international
organizations engaged in the protection of the environment,
such as the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and the
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD). We emphasize the need for strengthening their
co-operation and for their efficient co-ordination.
We recognize the essential contribution of our common European
culture and our shared values in overcoming the division of
the continent. Therefore, we underline our attachment to
creative freedom and to the protection and promotion of our
cultural and spiritual heritage, in all its richness and
In view of the recent changes in Europe, we stress the increased
importance of the Cracow Symposium and we look forward to its
consideration of guidelines for intensified co-operation in
the field of culture. We invite the Council of Europe to
contribute to this Symposium.
In order to promote greater familiarity amongst our peoples, we
favour the establishment of cultural centres in cities of
other participating States as well as increased co-operation
in the audio-visual field and wider exchange in music,
theatre, literature and the arts.
We resolve to make special efforts in our national policies to
promote better understanding, in particular among young
people, through cultural exchanges, co-operation in all
fields of education and, more specifically, through teaching
and training in the languages of other participating States.
We intend to consider first results of this action at the
Helsinki Follow-up Meeting in 1992.
We recognize that the issues of migrant workers and their families
legally residing in host countries have economic, cultural
and social aspects as well as their human dimension. We
reaffirm that the protection and promotion of their rights,
as well as the implementation of relevant international
obligations, is our common concern.
We consider that the fundamental political changes that have
occurred in Europe have a positive relevance to the
Mediterranean region. Thus, we will continue efforts to
strengthen security and co-operation in the Mediterranean as
an important factor for stability in Europe. We welcome the
Report of the Palma de Mallorca Meeting on the Mediterranean,
the results of which we all support.
We are concerned with the continuing tensions in the region, and
renew our determination to intensify efforts towards finding
just, viable and lasting solutions, through peaceful means,
to outstanding crucial problems, based on respect for the
principles of the Final Act.
We wish to promote favourable conditions for a harmonious
development and diversification of relations with the
non-participating Mediterranean States. Enhanced
co-operation with these States will be pursued with the aim
of promoting economic and social development and thereby
enhancing stability in the region. To this end, we will
strive together with these countries towards a substantial
narrowing of the prosperity gap between Europe and its
We recall the major role that non-governmental organizations,
religious and other groups and individuals have played in the
achievement of the objectives of the CSCE and will further
facilitate their activities for the implementation of the
CSCE commitments by the participating States. These
organizations, groups and individuals must be involved in an
appropriate way in the activities and new structures of the
CSCE in order to fulfil their important tasks.
New structures and institutions of the CSCE Process
Our common efforts to consolidate respect for human rights,
democracy and the rule of law, to strengthen peace and to
promote unity in Europe require a new quality of political
dialogue and co-operation and thus development of the
structures of the CSCE.
The intensification of our consultations at all levels is of prime
importance in shaping our future relations. To this end, we
decide on the following
We, the Heads of State or Government, shall meet next time in
Helsinki on the occasion of the CSCE Follow-up Meeting 1992.
Thereafter, we will meet on the occasion of subsequent
Our Ministers for Foreign Affairs will meet, as a Council, regularly
and at least once a year. These meetings will provide the
central forum for political consultations within the CSCE
process. The Council will consider issues relevant to the
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe and take
The first meeting of the Council will take place in Berlin.
A Committee of Senior Officials will prepare the meetings of the
Council and carry out its decisions. The Committee will
review current issues and may take appropriate decisions,
including in the form of recommendations to the Council.
Additional meetings of the representatives of the participating
States may be agreed upon to discuss questions of urgent
The Council will examine the development of provisions for convening
meetings of the Committee of Senior Officials in emergency
Meetings of other Ministers may also be agreed by the participating
In order to provide administrative support for these consultations
we establish a Secretariat in Prague.
Follow-up meetings of the participating States will be held, as a
rule, every two years to allow the participating States to
take stock of developments, review the implementation of
their commitments and consider further steps in the CSCE
We decide to create a Conflict Prevention Centre in Vienna to assist
the Council in reducing the risk of conflict.
We decide to establish an Office for Free Elections in Warsaw to
facilitate contacts and the exchange of information on
elections within participating States.
Recognizing the important role parliamentarians can play in the
CSCE process, we call for greater parliamentary involvement in
the CSCE, in particular through the creation of a CSCE
parliamentary assembly, involving members of parliaments from all
participating States. To this end, we urge that contacts be pursued
at parliamentary level to discuss the field of activities,
working methods and rules of procedure of such a CSCE
parliamentary structure, drawing on existing experience and
work already undertaken in this field.
We ask our Ministers for Foreign Affairs to review this matter on
the occasion of their first meeting as a Council.
* * *
Procedural and organizational modalities relating to certain
provisions contained in the Charter of Paris for a New Europe
are set out in the Supplementary Document which is adopted
together with the Charter of Paris.
We entrust to the Council the further steps which may be required to
ensure the implementation of decisions contained in the
present document, as well as in the Supplementary Document,
and to consider further efforts for the strengthening of
security and co-operation in Europe. The Council may adopt
any amendment to the supplementary document which it may deem
* * *
The original of the Charter of Paris for a New Europe, drawn up in
English, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish, will
be transmitted to the Government of the French Republic,
which will retain it in its archives. Each of the
participating States will receive from the Government of the
French Republic a true copy of the Charter of Paris.
The text of the Charter of Paris will be published in each
participating State, which will disseminate it and make it
known as widely as possible.
The Government of the French Republic is requested to transmit to
the Secretary-General of the United Nations the text of the
Charter of Paris for a New Europe which is not eligible for
registration under Article 102 of the Charter of the United
Nations, with a view to its circulation to all the members of
the Organization as an official document of the United
The Government of the French Republic is also requested to transmit
the text of the Charter of Paris to all the other
international organizations mentioned in the text.
Wherefore, we, the undersigned High Representatives of the
participating States, mindful of the high political significance we
attach to the results of the Summit Meeting, and declaring our
determination to act in accordance with the provisions we have
adopted, have subscribed our signatures below:
Done at Paris,
on 21 November 1990,
in the name of
to give effect to certain provisions
contained in the Charter of Paris for a New Europe
Procedures and organizational modalities relating to certain
provisions contained in the Charter of Paris for a New Europe,
signed in Paris on 21 November 1990, are set out below.
Meeting of experts on national minorities
II. Timetable and other organizational modalities
Formal opening of the Meeting.
Address by a representative of the host country.
Opening statements by representatives of the participating States.
Contribution by the Council of Europe.
Thorough discussion on the issue of national minorities and
of the rights of persons belonging to them, with due attention
to the diversity of situations and to the legal, historical,
political and economic backgrounds:
exchange of views on practical experience, in particular on
national legislation, democratic institutions, international
instruments and other possible forms of co-operation;
review of the implementation of the relevant CSCE commitments and
consideration of the scope for the improvement of relevant standards;
consideration of new measures aimed at improving the
implementation of the forementioned commitments.
Closing statements by representatives of the participating States
and summing up.
Formal closure of the Meeting.
The Meeting will open on Monday, 1 July 1991, at 3 p.m., in
Geneva. It will close on Friday, 19 July 1991.
The meetings of the Plenary will be open. The meetings of the
Subsidiary Working Bodies will be closed.
Agenda items 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 will be dealt with in the Plenary.
Agenda item 4 will be dealt with in three Subsidiary Working
Bodies (established according to the 3 sub-items) in a structured and
balanced way. Agenda item 4 will also be dealt with in the Plenary
Meetings of the Plenary and of the Subsidiary Working Bodies will
be held according to the attached work programme.
Opening statements by representatives of the participating States
should, as a rule, not exceed 15 minutes per delegation and will be
held in the following order: Yugoslavia, Iceland, Hungary, Bulgaria,
San Marino, Cyprus, United Kingdom, United States of America, Malta,
Belgium, Netherlands, Romania, Holy See, Ireland, Poland, Sweden,
Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic,
Germany, Canada, Monaco, Luxembourg, Greece, Austria, Switzerland,
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, Finland, Liechtenstein,
Participants are encouraged to circulate written contributions on
the subjects for consideration in one or more of the working
languages of the CSCE prior to the Meeting through the Executive
Secretary to all other participating States in order to allow a
thorough preparation of the relevant discussions.
The Council of Ministers will take into account the summing up
carried out under Agenda item 5.
At the opening and closing Plenary meetings, the Chair win be
taken by a representative of the host country. After the opening
meeting, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French
alphabetical order of the participating States, starting with a
representative of Ireland.
The Chair at the opening meetings of the Subsidiary Working
Bodies will be taken by a representative of the host country.
Thereafter, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French
alphabetical order starting:
in Subsidiary Working Body A with a representative of Switzerland;
in Subsidiary Working Body B with a representative of France;
in Subsidiary Working Body C with a representative of Romania.
In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of
the Helsinki Consultations, the Government of Switzerland will
designate an Executive Secretary. This designation will be subject
to approval by the participating States.
The other rules of procedure, the working methods and the scale
of distribution of the expenses of the CSCE will, mutatis mutandis,
be applied to the Meeting of Experts on National Minorities.